Docker Run Ubuntu Container

2/5/2022by admin

Hi, I’m new to docker. So I did run docker run -it ubuntu I did some installations (apache, php, etc) on my container. Now when I start my container it stops right away. No idea how to enter to command line and keep my web server running within that container. While I’m reading a book I would appreciate if you can give me some hints and directions. Also, let’s look at another 3 methods to keep the container running with the docker run command. Method 1: You can use the -t (pseudo-tty) docker parameter to keep the container running. Docker run -d -t ubuntu. Method 2: You can run the container directly passing the tail command via arguments as shown below.

Run a Docker Container in Ubuntu. In order to create and run a Docker container, first you need to run a command into a downloaded CentOS image, so a basic command would be to check the distribution version file inside the container using cat command, as shown. $ docker run centos cat /etc/issue 14. When running docker desktop version 2.1.5.0 (40323) on: OS Name: Microsoft Windows 10 Pro OS Version: 10.0.19013 N/A Build 19013 Eben though WSL 2 based engine is enabled in Settings/General docker container run hello-world on Ubuntu rep.

Docker is not, really, for running an OS. It is for running a single process in a contained (isolated) environment. The container uses the same kernel as what is on the host. When you create a Docker image with FROM ubuntu you are starting your image with some pre-created layers that brings in some parts of a standard file system and packages. As an example, let’s run a container using the latest image of Ubuntu. The combination of the -i and -t switches gives you interactive shell access into the container: docker run -it ubuntu Your command prompt should change to reflect the fact that you’re now working inside the container and should take this form.

Estimated reading time: 15 minutes

Run Ubuntu In Docker On Windows 10

Welcome to Docker Desktop! The Docker Desktop for Windows user manual provides information on how to configure and manage your Docker Desktop settings.

For information about Docker Desktop download, system requirements, and installation instructions, see Install Docker Desktop.

Settings

The Docker Desktop menu allows you to configure your Docker settings such as installation, updates, version channels, Docker Hub login,and more.

This section explains the configuration options accessible from the Settings dialog.

  1. Open the Docker Desktop menu by clicking the Docker icon in the Notifications area (or System tray):

  2. Select Settings to open the Settings dialog:

General

On the General tab of the Settings dialog, you can configure when to start and update Docker.

  • Start Docker when you log in - Automatically start Docker Desktop upon Windows system login.

  • Expose daemon on tcp://localhost:2375 without TLS - Click this option to enable legacy clients to connect to the Docker daemon. You must use this option with caution as exposing the daemon without TLS can result in remote code execution attacks.

  • Send usage statistics - By default, Docker Desktop sends diagnostics,crash reports, and usage data. This information helps Docker improve andtroubleshoot the application. Clear the check box to opt out. Docker may periodically prompt you for more information.

Resources

The Resources tab allows you to configure CPU, memory, disk, proxies, network, and other resources. Different settings are available for configuration depending on whether you are using Linux containers in WSL 2 mode, Linux containers in Hyper-V mode, or Windows containers.

Advanced

Note

The Advanced tab is only available in Hyper-V mode, because in WSL 2 mode and Windows container mode these resources are managed by Windows. In WSL 2 mode, you can configure limits on the memory, CPU, and swap size allocatedto the WSL 2 utility VM.

Use the Advanced tab to limit resources available to Docker.

CPUs: By default, Docker Desktop is set to use half the number of processorsavailable on the host machine. To increase processing power, set this to ahigher number; to decrease, lower the number.

Memory: By default, Docker Desktop is set to use 2 GB runtime memory,allocated from the total available memory on your machine. To increase the RAM, set this to a higher number. To decrease it, lower the number.

Swap: Configure swap file size as needed. The default is 1 GB.

Disk image size: Specify the size of the disk image.

Disk image location: Specify the location of the Linux volume where containers and images are stored.

You can also move the disk image to a different location. If you attempt to move a disk image to a location that already has one, you get a prompt asking if you want to use the existing image or replace it.

File sharing

Note

The File sharing tab is only available in Hyper-V mode, because in WSL 2 mode and Windows container mode all files are automatically shared by Windows.

Use File sharing to allow local directories on Windows to be shared with Linux containers.This is especially useful forediting source code in an IDE on the host while running and testing the code in a container.Note that configuring file sharing is not necessary for Windows containers, only Linux containers. If a directory is not shared with a Linux container you may get file not found or cannot start service errors at runtime. See Volume mounting requires shared folders for Linux containers.

File share settings are:

  • Add a Directory: Click + and navigate to the directory you want to add.

  • Apply & Restart makes the directory available to containers using Docker’sbind mount (-v) feature.

Tips on shared folders, permissions, and volume mounts

  • Share only the directories that you need with the container. File sharing introduces overhead as any changes to the files on the host need to be notified to the Linux VM. Sharing too many files can lead to high CPU load and slow filesystem performance.

  • Shared folders are designed to allow application code to be edited on the host while being executed in containers. For non-code items such as cache directories or databases, the performance will be much better if they are stored in the Linux VM, using a data volume (named volume) or data container.

  • Docker Desktop sets permissions to read/write/execute for users, groups and others 0777 or a+rwx.This is not configurable. See Permissions errors on data directories for shared volumes.

  • Windows presents a case-insensitive view of the filesystem to applications while Linux is case-sensitive. On Linux it is possible to create 2 separate files: test and Test, while on Windows these filenames would actually refer to the same underlying file. This can lead to problems where an app works correctly on a developer Windows machine (where the file contents are shared) but fails when run in Linux in production (where the file contents are distinct). To avoid this, Docker Desktop insists that all shared files are accessed as their original case. Therefore if a file is created called test, it must be opened as test. Attempts to open Test will fail with “No such file or directory”. Similarly once a file called test is created, attempts to create a second file called Test will fail.

Shared folders on demand

You can share a folder “on demand” the first time a particular folder is used by a container.

If you run a Docker command from a shell with a volume mount (as shown in theexample below) or kick off a Compose file that includes volume mounts, you get apopup asking if you want to share the specified folder.

You can select to Share it, in which case it is added your Docker Desktop Shared Folders list and available tocontainers. Alternatively, you can opt not to share it by selecting Cancel.

Proxies

Docker Desktop lets you configure HTTP/HTTPS Proxy Settings andautomatically propagates these to Docker. For example, if you set your proxysettings to http://proxy.example.com, Docker uses this proxy when pulling containers.

Your proxy settings, however, will not be propagated into the containers you start.If you wish to set the proxy settings for your containers, you need to defineenvironment variables for them, just like you would do on Linux, for example:

For more information on setting environment variables for running containers,see Set environment variables.

Network

Note

The Network tab is not available in Windows container mode because networking is managed by Windows.

You can configure Docker Desktop networking to work on a virtual private network (VPN). Specify a network address translation (NAT) prefix and subnet mask to enable Internet connectivity.

DNS Server: You can configure the DNS server to use dynamic or static IP addressing.

Note

Some users reported problems connecting to Docker Hub on Docker Desktop. This would manifest as an error when trying to rundocker commands that pull images from Docker Hub that are not alreadydownloaded, such as a first time run of docker run hello-world. If youencounter this, reset the DNS server to use the Google DNS fixed address:8.8.8.8. For more information, seeNetworking issues in Troubleshooting.

Updating these settings requires a reconfiguration and reboot of the Linux VM.

WSL Integration

In WSL 2 mode, you can configure which WSL 2 distributions will have the Docker WSL integration.

By default, the integration will be enabled on your default WSL distribution. To change your default WSL distro, run wsl --set-default <distro name>. (For example, to set Ubuntu as your default WSL distro, run wsl --set-default ubuntu).

You can also select any additional distributions you would like to enable the WSL 2 integration on.

For more details on configuring Docker Desktop to use WSL 2, see Docker Desktop WSL 2 backend.

Docker Engine

The Docker Engine page allows you to configure the Docker daemon to determine how your containers run.

Type a JSON configuration file in the box to configure the daemon settings. For a full list of options, see the Docker Enginedockerd commandline reference.

Click Apply & Restart to save your settings and restart Docker Desktop.

Command Line

On the Command Line page, you can specify whether or not to enable experimental features.

You can toggle the experimental features on and off in Docker Desktop. If you toggle the experimental features off, Docker Desktop uses the current generally available release of Docker Engine.

Experimental features

Experimental features provide early access to future product functionality.These features are intended for testing and feedback only as they may changebetween releases without warning or can be removed entirely from a futurerelease. Experimental features must not be used in production environments.Docker does not offer support for experimental features.

For a list of current experimental features in the Docker CLI, see Docker CLI Experimental features.

Run docker version to verify whether you have enabled experimental features. Experimental modeis listed under Server data. If Experimental is true, then Docker isrunning in experimental mode, as shown here:

Kubernetes

Note

The Kubernetes tab is not available in Windows container mode.

Docker Desktop includes a standalone Kubernetes server that runs on your Windows machince, sothat you can test deploying your Docker workloads on Kubernetes. To enable Kubernetes support and install a standalone instance of Kubernetes running as a Docker container, select Enable Kubernetes.

For more information about using the Kubernetes integration with Docker Desktop, see Deploy on Kubernetes.

Docker Run Ubuntu Container Tracking

Reset

The Restart Docker Desktop and Reset to factory defaults options are now available on the Troubleshoot menu. For information, see Logs and Troubleshooting.

Docker run ubuntu container in background

Troubleshoot

Visit our Logs and Troubleshooting guide for more details.

Log on to our Docker Desktop for Windows forum to get help from the community, review current user topics, or join a discussion.

Log on to Docker Desktop for Windows issues on GitHub to report bugs or problems and review community reported issues.

Run Ubuntu In Docker On Windows

For information about providing feedback on the documentation or update it yourself, see Contribute to documentation.

Switch between Windows and Linux containers

From the Docker Desktop menu, you can toggle which daemon (Linux or Windows)the Docker CLI talks to. Select Switch to Windows containers to use Windowscontainers, or select Switch to Linux containers to use Linux containers(the default).

For more information on Windows containers, refer to the following documentation:

  • Microsoft documentation on Windows containers.

  • Build and Run Your First Windows Server Container (Blog Post)gives a quick tour of how to build and run native Docker Windows containers on Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 evaluation releases.

  • Getting Started with Windows Containers (Lab)shows you how to use the MusicStoreapplication with Windows containers. The MusicStore is a standard .NET application and,forked here to use containers, is a good example of a multi-container application.

  • To understand how to connect to Windows containers from the local host, seeLimitations of Windows containers for localhost and published ports

Settings dialog changes with Windows containers

When you switch to Windows containers, the Settings dialog only shows those tabs that are active and apply to your Windows containers:

If you set proxies or daemon configuration in Windows containers mode, theseapply only on Windows containers. If you switch back to Linux containers,proxies and daemon configurations return to what you had set for Linuxcontainers. Your Windows container settings are retained and become availableagain when you switch back.

Dashboard

The Docker Desktop Dashboard enables you to interact with containers and applications and manage the lifecycle of your applications directly from your machine. The Dashboard UI shows all running, stopped, and started containers with their state. It provides an intuitive interface to perform common actions to inspect and manage containers and Docker Compose applications. For more information, see Docker Desktop Dashboard.

Docker Hub

Select Sign in /Create Docker ID from the Docker Desktop menu to access your Docker Hub account. Once logged in, you can access your Docker Hub repositories directly from the Docker Desktop menu.

For more information, refer to the following Docker Hub topics:

Two-factor authentication

Docker Desktop enables you to sign into Docker Hub using two-factor authentication. Two-factor authentication provides an extra layer of security when accessing your Docker Hub account.

You must enable two-factor authentication in Docker Hub before signing into your Docker Hub account through Docker Desktop. For instructions, see Enable two-factor authentication for Docker Hub.

After you have enabled two-factor authentication:

  1. Go to the Docker Desktop menu and then select Sign in / Create Docker ID.

  2. Enter your Docker ID and password and click Sign in.

  3. After you have successfully signed in, Docker Desktop prompts you to enter the authentication code. Enter the six-digit code from your phone and then click Verify.

After you have successfully authenticated, you can access your organizations and repositories directly from the Docker Desktop menu.

Adding TLS certificates

You can add trusted Certificate Authorities (CAs) to your Docker daemon to verify registry server certificates, and client certificates, to authenticate to registries.

How do I add custom CA certificates?

Can We Run Ubuntu Docker On Windows

Docker Desktop supports all trusted Certificate Authorities (CAs) (root orintermediate). Docker recognizes certs stored under Trust RootCertification Authorities or Intermediate Certification Authorities.

Docker Desktop creates a certificate bundle of all user-trusted CAs based onthe Windows certificate store, and appends it to Moby trusted certificates. Therefore, if an enterprise SSL certificate is trusted by the user on the host, it is trusted by Docker Desktop.

Run Ubuntu In Docker On Windows 7

To learn more about how to install a CA root certificate for the registry, seeVerify repository client with certificatesin the Docker Engine topics.

How do I add client certificates?

You can add your client certificatesin ~/.docker/certs.d/<MyRegistry>:<Port>/client.cert and~/.docker/certs.d/<MyRegistry>:<Port>/client.key. You do not need to push your certificates with git commands.

When the Docker Desktop application starts, it copies the~/.docker/certs.d folder on your Windows system to the /etc/docker/certs.ddirectory on Moby (the Docker Desktop virtual machine running on Hyper-V).

Run

You need to restart Docker Desktop after making any changes to the keychainor to the ~/.docker/certs.d directory in order for the changes to take effect.

The registry cannot be listed as an insecure registry (seeDocker Daemon). Docker Desktop ignorescertificates listed under insecure registries, and does not send clientcertificates. Commands like docker run that attempt to pull from the registryproduce error messages on the command line, as well as on the registry.

To learn more about how to set the client TLS certificate for verification, seeVerify repository client with certificatesin the Docker Engine topics.

Where to go next

Run Ubuntu In Docker On Windows 10

Ubuntu
  • Try out the walkthrough at Get Started.

  • Dig in deeper with Docker Labs example walkthroughs and source code.

  • Refer to the Docker CLI Reference Guide.

windows, edge, tutorial, run, docker, local, machine

Estimated reading time: 10 minutes

Prerequisites

Work through the steps to build a Node JS image in Build your Node image.

Overview

In the previous module we created our sample application and then we created a Dockerfile that we used to create an image. We created our image using the command docker build. Now that we have an image, we can run that image and see if our application is running correctly.

A container is a normal operating system process except that this process is isolated and has its own file system, its own networking, and its own isolated process tree separate from the host.

To run an image inside of a container, we use the docker run command. The docker run command requires one parameter and that is the image name. Let’s start our image and make sure it is running correctly. Execute the following command in your terminal.

When you run this command, you’ll notice that you were not returned to the command prompt. This is because our application is a REST server and will run in a loop waiting for incoming requests without return control back to the OS until we stop the container.

Let’s open a new terminal then make a GET request to the server using the curl command.

Our curl command failed because the connection to our server was refused. It means that we were not able to connect to localhost on port 8000. This is expected because our container is running in isolation which includes networking. Let’s stop the container and restart with port 8000 published on our local network.

To stop the container, press ctrl-c. This will return you to the terminal prompt.

To publish a port for our container, we’ll use the --publish flag (-p for short) on the docker run command. The format of the --publish command is [host port]:[container port]. So if we wanted to expose port 8000 inside the container to port 3000 outside the container, we would pass 3000:8000 to the --publish flag.

Start the container and expose port 8000 to port 8000 on the host.

Now let’s rerun the curl command from above. Remember to open a new terminal.

Success! We were able to connect to the application running inside of our container on port 8000. Switch back to the terminal where your container is running and you should see the POST request logged to the console.

2020-09-01T17:36:09:8770 INFO: POST /test

Press ctrl-c to stop the container.

Run in detached mode

This is great so far, but our sample application is a web server and we should not have to have our terminal connected to the container. Docker can run your container in detached mode or in the background. To do this, we can use the --detach or -d for short. Docker will start your container the same as before but this time will “detach” from the container and return you to the terminal prompt.

Docker started our container in the background and printed the Container ID on the terminal.

Again, let’s make sure that our container is running properly. Run the same curl command from above.

List containers

Since we ran our container in the background, how do we know if our container is running or what other containers are running on our machine? Well, we can run the docker ps command. Just like on Linux, to see a list of processes on your machine we would run the ps command. In the same spirit, we can run the docker ps command which will show us a list of containers running on our machine.

The ps command tells a bunch of stuff about our running containers. We can see the Container ID, The image running inside the container, the command that was used to start the container, when it was created, the status, ports that exposed and the name of the container.

Docker Compose Run Ubuntu Container

You are probably wondering where the name of our container is coming from. Since we didn’t provide a name for the container when we started it, Docker generated a random name. We’ll fix this in a minute but first we need to stop the container. To stop the container, run the docker stop command which does just that, stops the container. You will need to pass the name of the container or you can use the container id.

Docker Run Ubuntu Container

Now rerun the docker ps command to see a list of running containers.

Stop, start, and name containers

Docker containers can be started, stopped and restarted. When we stop a container, it is not removed but the status is changed to stopped and the process inside of the container is stopped. When we ran the docker ps command, the default output is to only show running containers. If we pass the --all or -a for short, we will see all containers on our system whether they are stopped or started.

If you’ve been following along, you should see several containers listed. These are containers that we started and stopped but have not been removed.

Let’s restart the container that we just stopped. Locate the name of the container we just stopped and replace the name of the container below in the restart command.

Now, list all the containers again using the ps command.

Notice that the container we just restarted has been started in detached mode and has port 8000 exposed. Also, observe the status of the container is “Up X seconds”. When you restart a container, it will be started with the same flags or commands that it was originally started with.

Windows Docker Run Ubuntu Container

Let’s stop and remove all of our containers and take a look at fixing the random naming issue.

Stop the container we just started. Find the name of your running container and replace the name in the command below with the name of the container on your system.

Now that all of our containers are stopped, let’s remove them. When a container is removed, it is no longer running nor is it in the stopped status. However, the process inside the container has been stopped and the metadata for the container has been removed.

To remove a container, simple run the docker rm command passing the container name. You can pass multiple container names to the command in one command.

Again, make sure you replace the containers names in the below command with the container names from your system.

Run the docker ps --all command again to see that all containers are gone.

Now let’s address the pesky random name issue. Standard practice is to name your containers for the simple reason that it is easier to identify what is running in the container and what application or service it is associated with. Just like good naming conventions for variables in your code makes it simpler to read. So goes naming your containers.

To name a container, we just need to pass the --name flag to the run command.

Now, we can easily identify our container based on the name.

Docker Run Ubuntu Container Database

Next steps

In this module, we took a look at running containers, publishing ports, and running containers in detached mode. We also took a look at managing containers by starting, stopping, and restarting them. We also looked at naming our containers so they are more easily identifiable. In the next module, we’ll learn how to run a database in a container and connect it to our application. See:

Docker Run Ubuntu Container

Feedback

Docker Run Ubuntu Containers

Help us improve this topic by providing your feedback. Let us know what you think by creating an issue in the Docker Docs GitHub repository. Alternatively, create a PR to suggest updates.


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